Jihad According to the Classical Scholars

From Muhammad, Messenger of Allah, to Jaifar and 'Abd, sons of al-Julanda, and may peace be upon those who follow Allah's guidance. To proceed, I invite you both to Islam; accept Islam and you will attain salvation, for I am Allah's Messenger to all mankind so that I may warn those who are alive and establish (Allah's) word over the unbelievers. If you declare your Islam I will appoint you both as governors [of your lands], but if you refuse then (know that) your dominion is only fleeting, and my horsemen will dismount in your courtyard, and my Prophethood will prevail over your dominion.

“Man’s meanest weapon is to shed tears when swords stir the coals of war”

‘How dare you slumber in the shade of complacent safety leading lives as frivolous as garden flowers, while your brothers in Syria have no dwelling place save the saddles of camels and the bellies of vultures? Blood has been spilled! Beautiful young girls have been shamed, and must now hide their sweet faces in their hands! Shall the valorous Arabs resign themselves to insult, and the valiant Persians accept dishonour?’

The Most Hated of People to Allah

Ibn ‘Adi has narrated from Abu Hurayrah (ra) that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ said, ‘In Hell, there is a valley from which the Fire seeks refuge seventy times a day. Allah (swt) has prepared it for the jurists who act to be admired by people. And the most hated of people to Allah (swt) is the scholar of the ruler.’

Abū ‘Ubayd on the Rights of the Ruler and the Ruled

In Kitāb al-Amwāl (Book of State Revenue), Abū ‘Ubayd al-Qāsim ibn Sallām* provides us with an accurate record of legal precedents laid down in the first two centuries of Islam, in particular those pertaining to the sources of revenue and the avenues of public expenditure. The book is essential for every student of Islamic law, … Continue reading Abū ‘Ubayd on the Rights of the Ruler and the Ruled

The Political Sunnah of the Prophet ﷺ: Part 4 – A Coup in Madina

We will see in this article that what occurred in Medina was in fact a coup in which the Messenger of Allah ﷺ seized power by gaining the support of men and women from two of the most powerful factions of the city just before someone else was about to be crowned king.

The Political Sunnah of the Prophet ﷺ: Part 3

In the previous two posts in this series (part 1 and part 2), we examined the Shari‘ah evidences that show how the Sunnah of the Prophet ﷺ was not only restricted to how we perform the prayer, pilgrimage and other acts of worship, but also in how to govern, run an economy etc. and in … Continue reading The Political Sunnah of the Prophet ﷺ: Part 3

The Political Sunnah of the Prophet ﷺ: Part 2

Al-Arqam ibn Abi al-Arqam Mosque, Benghazi In the first post in this series, the requirement to follow the Sunnah of the Prophet ﷺ, not only in our individual worship but also in political (or indeed economic or social) matters was discussed. This political Sunnah includes the methodology of the Prophet ﷺ in statecraft and also … Continue reading The Political Sunnah of the Prophet ﷺ: Part 2

The Political Sunnah of the Prophet ﷺ: Part 1

In relation to the requirement to obey Allah and His Messenger (ﷺ), Imam Shafi‘i quotes many verses of the Qur’an in his most famous book, Al-Risāla fī Uṣūl al-Fiqh (Treatise on the Foundations of Islamic Jurisprudence). Among them is the following: “O believers! Obey Allah and His Messenger...” (8:20) And “When Allah and His Messenger … Continue reading The Political Sunnah of the Prophet ﷺ: Part 1

Classical Works on Creed and the Caliphate Imperative – Part 4: Al-Tahawi, Al-Bayhaqi and Al-Baqillani

In the final part of this series, we will continue our review of the classical works of uṣūl (beliefs). As a recap, notwithstanding that the institution of the Caliphate/Imamate relates to jurisprudence (law as opposed to belief), its sheer importance led to its inclusion within the uṣūl discussions of the classical scholars.  This historical phenomenon … Continue reading Classical Works on Creed and the Caliphate Imperative – Part 4: Al-Tahawi, Al-Bayhaqi and Al-Baqillani

Classical Works on Creed and the Caliphate Imperative – Part 3: al-Juwayni, al-Nasafi, al-Taftazani and al-Qari

In the third part of this series of blog posts, we examine the ‘aqīda works of Imam al-Haramayn al-Juwayni (d. 478 H/1085 CE), Imam Najm al-Din al-Nasafi (537/1142), Imam Sa‘d al-Din al-Taftazani (793/1390) and Mulla ‘Ali al-Qari (1014/1605). Imam al-Haramayn al-Juwayni (Shafi‘i school of jurisprudence) He was the teacher of Imam al-Ghazali, the mujaddid of … Continue reading Classical Works on Creed and the Caliphate Imperative – Part 3: al-Juwayni, al-Nasafi, al-Taftazani and al-Qari