The Political Significance of the Kalimah

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The following is related by Al-Wahidi in his Asbab al-Nuzul [The Circumstances of Revelation] regarding Surah 38 verses 5 to 12

“When ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab embraced Islam, the Muslims were overjoyed while the Quraysh was devastated. Al-Walid ibn al-Mughirah said to the nobles and chiefs of Quraysh: ‘Go to Abu Talib and say to him: you are our elder and chief and you know well what these fools have done. We have come to you so that you judge between us and your nephew’. Abu Talib sent for the Prophet and when he answered his call, he said to him: ‘Son of my brother, these are your own people and they are asking you for fairness, so do not swerve completely from them’. The Prophet asked: ‘What do they want from me?’ They said: ‘Cease mentioning our deities and we will leave you alone with your God’. The Prophet said to them: ‘Will you grant me one word [kalimah] by means of which you will rule over the Arabs and subjugate the non-Arabs?’ Abu Jahl said: ‘We will surely grant it and grant you ten like it!’ The Prophet said: ‘Say: there is no deity except Allah!*’ The Quraysh were repelled and left, saying: ‘Does he make the gods One God? How can One God be sufficient for the whole creation?’ And so Allah, exalted is He, revealed about them these verses [i.e. from 38:5], up to His words (The folk of Noah before them denied (their messenger)…) [38:12]”

*i.e. La ilaha illa Llah

When the Second Caliph Umar was Overruled by the Judge

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Sa‘eed bin Musayyib narrates that Hadhrat Umar raḍyAllāhu 'anhu (may Allāh be pleased with him) once intended to take the house* of Hadhrat Abbas raḍyAllāhu 'anhu (may Allāh be pleased with him) to include it in the Masjid. However, Hadhrat Abbas raḍyAllāhu 'anhu (may Allāh be pleased with him) refused to hand the house over. When Hadhrat Umar raḍyAllāhu 'anhu (may Allāh be pleased with him) resolved that he would certainly have possession of the house, Hadhrat Abbas raḍyAllāhu 'anhu (may Allāh be pleased with him) proposed that they appoint Hadhrat Ubay bin Ka‘b raḍyAllāhu 'anhu (may Allāh be pleased with him) to pass judgement between them. Hadhrat Umar raḍyAllāhu 'anhu (may Allāh be pleased with him) agreed and they both approached Hadhrat Ubay raḍyAllāhu 'anhu (may Allāh be pleased with him). After they had related the matter to him, Hadhrat Ubay raḍyAllāhu 'anhu (may Allāh be pleased with him) said, “Allah sent revelation to Hadhrat Sulayman bin Dawud instructing him to construct Baytul Maqdis [in Jerusalem]. The land belonged to a man whom Hadhrat Sulayman 'alayhi'l-salām (peace be upon him) approached to buy it from him. However, when Hadhrat Sulayman 'alayhi'l-salām (peace be upon him) handed over the money to the man, he [the man] asked, ‘Is this price that you are paying better or is that which you are taking from me better?’ Hadhrat Sulayman 'alayhi'l-salām (peace be upon him) replied, ‘Certainly that which I am taking from you is better.’ ‘In that case,’ said the man, ‘I shall not accept it.’

Hadhrat Sulayman 'alayhi'l-salām (peace be upon him) then gave the man a higher price. The man then did the same thing two or three times until Hadhrat Sulayman 'alayhi'l-salām (peace be upon him) made the condition with him, ‘I am buying the land from you at the price you fix. You may therefore not ask me which of the two is better.’ Hadhrat Sulayman 'alayhi'l-salām (peace be upon him) took the purchased land from him at the price he fixed, which happened to be twelve thousand Qintar of gold (one Qintar equals four thousand gold coins). Hadhrat Sulayman 'alayhi'l-salām (peace be upon him) then felt that the amount was too big to give the man. Allah then sent revelation to him saying, ‘If you are paying him from something that is your own, then you know best (what you have to do). However, if you are paying from what We have provided for you, then give him whatever he is pleased with.’ Hadhrat Sulayman 'alayhi'l-salām (peace be upon him) then paid the amount.”

Hadhrat Ubay raḍyAllāhu 'anhu (may Allāh be pleased with him) continued, “I feel that Abbas raḍyAllāhu 'anhu (may Allāh be pleased with him) has a greater right to his house, which cannot be taken from him until he is pleased.” Hadhrat Abbas raḍyAllāhu 'anhu (may Allāh be pleased with him) then said, ‘Since you have made the decision in my favour, I wish to make it Sadaqah [a charitable gift] for the Muslims.’

[Hayatus Sahabah (The Lives of the Companions), by Maulana Muhammad Yusuf Kandhelwi, excerpted from the English translation by Mufti Afzal Hoosen Elias, Zam Zam Publishers, Karachi, June 2013, vol. 2, pp. 133-134 (related by Abdur Razzaq, as quoted in Kanzul Ummal vol. 4 p. 260. Also related by Ibn Sa‘d vol. 4 p. 13. Ibn Asakir relates a similar narration, as do Bayhaqi and Ya‘qub bin Sulayman – quoted in Kanzul Ummal vol. 7 p. 65). Words in square brackets have been added.]

*His house was next door to Masjidun Nabawi