Classical Works on Creed and the Caliphate Imperative – Part 2: Al-Laqqani and Al-Shahrastani

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The cover of a recently published commentary on Jawharat al-Tawḥīd

In the second part of this series of blog posts, we will examine works on creed by Ibrahim al-Laqqani al-Maliki (d. 1041H/1631CE) and Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul Karim al-Shahrastani al-Shafi‘i (d. 548H/1153CE). Part 1, examining the creedal thought of Imam Ghazali and Imam Abu Mansur al-Baghdadi, can be viewed here. The main thrust of this series is to illustrate that the classical scholars considered the institution of the Caliphate (Imāmah) so foundational to Islam that they included this subject in their works on ‘aqīda (beliefs).

Jawharat al-Tawḥīd (The Pearl of Oneness), a popular poem by Ibrahim al-Laqqani outlining the the Islamic ‘aqīda, has been memorised and studied throughout the Muslim world for centuries. Numerous glosses and commentaries have been written by various scholars, including one by al-Laqqani’s son ‘Abd al-Salam al-Laqqani (d. 1078H).

In one couplet, al-Laqqani stresses how the obligation of appointing a caliph is based on Sharī‘ah proofs, as opposed to rational evidence in fierce opposition to the Mu‘tazilah sect. In the words of al-Laqqani:

“It is an obligation to appoint a just Imām.
Know that this is by divine precept, not the judgement of human reasoning.”

Abd al-Salam al-Laqqani (the son) comments in Itḥāf al-Murīd Sharḥ Jawharat al-Tawḥīd:

“That is, to appoint and install an Imām. This law is addressed to the whole community (umma) as from the death of the Prophet (عليه الصلاة و السلام) until the Day of Resurrection; but when the influential men (ahl al-ḥall wa al-‘aqd) perform this task, it suffices for all, no matter whether it be in times of civil strife or otherwise. This is according to the Sunnis, and, when [the term] Imamate is used unrestrictedly, it means the Caliphate, which is an overall leadership embracing all religious and temporal affairs – [undertaken] on behalf of the Prophet ﷺ.”

And on the meaning of ‘by divine precept’, he explains:

“It means that the obligation of appointing an Imām over the community (umma) is based on divine law, according to the Sunnis, // for a number of reasons, the chief of which is the ijmā‘ of the Companions (raḍyAllāhu 'anhum (may Allāh be pleased with them)) who so emphasised it that they considered it the most important of duties and were [thus] distracted by it from burying the Prophet ﷺ. A similar [situation has occurred] following the death of every Imām up to the present day. However, their disagreement on who is suitable for the office of Caliph does not detract from their agreement on the obligation of appointing one. Thus none of them said that there was no need for an Imām.”

[The translation used here is that of Fathi Hasan El-Masri in his English rendering of Bayān Wujūb al-Hijra ʿalā ʾl-ʿIbād, Khartoum, Khartoum University Press; New York, Oxford University Press, 1978, p. 61]

Imam al-Shahrastani is perhaps best known for his encyclopedia of religions and sects, Kitāb al-Milal wa al-Nihal. He also authored several other works, among them Nihāyat al-aqdām fi ‘ilm al-kalām (The End of Steps in the Science of Theology). This creedal work, divided into twenty chapters, includes a section on the Imāmah (Caliphate). A brief excerpt follows:

“The jamhūr (overwhelming majority) of hadith scholars from the Ash‘ariyyah, the fuqahā’ (jurists), the Shī‘ah, Mu‘tazilah and most of the Khawārij believe in the necessity of the Imāmah as a command (farḍ) from Allah the Exalted. Ahl al-Sunnah said it is a duty (farḍ) which all Muslims must carry out.

There must be an Imām to administer their laws, establish their ḥudūd limits, protect their territories guard their frontiers, equip their armies, distribute their spoils and alms (zakat), arbitrate in disputes, conduct marriages, supervise jumu‘ah and the two Eids, establish justice for the wronged against the oppressor, appoint judges and governors in every province, send out reciters and preachers to every region, disseminate knowledge, guidance and right thought to discerning students with sharp minds and to those who denounce the truth and stray from the path. The Imam must warn sinners and bring them back to the right path, and cleanse the land of reprehensible innovation and error by use of the sword (if necessary)…

The institution of the Imāmah is testified by agreement of the Ummah from the first generation to our own day in the words: ‘The earth can never be without an Imām wielding authority.’ ”

[Cf. Alfred Guillaume, The Summa Philosophiae of Al-Shahrastani: Edited with a Translation from Manuscripts in the Libraries of Oxford, Paris and Berlin, Oxford University Press; London, Humphrey Milford, 1934, p. 151. The translation has been amended in parts]

In the third part of this 4-part series, we will examine the creedal works of Imam al-Haramayn al-Juwayni, Mulla ‘Ali al-Qari, Imam Nasafi and Imam al-Taftazani.

 

Classical Works on Creed and the Caliphate Imperative – Part 1: Imam Ghazali and Imam Abu Mansur al-Baghdadi

Ghazali Creed

The Grand Mufti of Damascus, Imam ‘Ala’ al-Dīn al-Haskafi, like other Islamic luminaries states in his famous Hanafi work Durr al-Mukhtār [The Chosen Pearl] written in the year 1070H:

“…The major (type) (i.e. the Caliphate) is the right of general administration over the people. Its study is in ‘ilm al-kalām and establishing it is the most important of obligations… ” [Book of Prayer, Chapter on Imāmah]

As the subject of ‘Ilm al-kalām addresses the proofs of beliefs, Imam Haskafi affirms the nature and scope of the Caliphate (Imāmah) within the Islamic sciences and elevates its rank as a foundational (‘aqīda) subject and not one that is merely a subject of Jurisprudence.

This is why so many classical works on creed comprise of sections on the Caliphate and its rulings. Imam Ghazali too in his essay on beliefs entitled al-Risāla al-qudsiyya fi qawā‘id al-‘aqā’id [The Jerusalem Epistle on the Principles of the Creed], as featured in his Iḥyāʾ ʿulūm al-dīn, states: ‘[…The people of truth] realized that expressing the devotional testimony “There is no god but God” [lā ilāha illa Llāh] is pointless and without benefit unless one completely comprehends the pillars and principles related to this testimony…Thus they came to know that faith is centred on these four pillars, each of which is centred on ten foundations.’

He then lists a summary of these pillars and foundations. The ‘fourth pillar of faith pertains to things known by transmitted reports, and has ten foundations’ including ‘the rulings pertaining to the Imām, the virtues of the Companions in their hierarchical order, the conditions of the Imāmah, and [to affirm] that even if a potential Imām does not possess piety and knowledge, his rule is valid if he fulfils the other conditions’.

Imam Ghazali concludes The Jerusalem Epistle with these words: ‘These, then, are the four pillars containing forty fundamentals which together constitute the principles of the creed. He who believes in them is in accordance with the people of the sunnah and distinct from the heretics’ [the translation from the Arabic quoted here is by Sidi Khalid Williams, The Principles of The Creed Kitāb Qawā‘id al-‘aqā’id Book 2 of The Revival of the Religious Sciences Iḥyāʾ ʿulūm al-dīn, Fons Vitae, Louisville, 2016, pp. 57-58, 89].

This therefore means that, for Ahl al-Sunnah, knowledge of the Imāmah (Caliphate) and its rulings is considered a foundational principle.

Another work on creed by Imam Ghazali is the book al-Iqtiṣād fi al-I‘tiqād, which includes a whole chapter on the Caliphate (Imāmah). In this section, he states ‘religion (dīn) and sultan are twins’ and he also presents what he describes as ‘definite legal proof’ (البرهان القطعى الشرعى) that appointing a caliph is an obligation. He states that ‘the obligation of appointing an Imām is among the essential requirements of the law [ضروريات الشرع] – a requirement that by no means can be ignored’. (To read more of the relevant excerpts from the book, see here).

The foundational nature of knowledge of the Caliphate is also mentioned by Imam Abu Mansur ‘Abd al-Qahir al-Baghdadi (d. 429H/1037CE) in his al-Farq bayn al-Firaq which is a major work on the beliefs of Ahl al-Sunnah. In this book, he discusses the views of the various heretical sects and contrasts this with the Orthodox position. Section 3 of chapter 5 of this book is entitled An Exposition of the Fundamental Dogmas (Uṣūl) Upon which the Orthodox (Ahl al-Sunnah) are in Mutual Agreement.

The following is excerpted from this section:

“The generality (jamhūr) of Orthodox Muslims (Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jamā‘ah) are agreed about certain principles (uṣūl) of the pillars (arkān) of the dīn, and a knowledge of the essence of every one of these is binding on every understanding, mature person…

As for these principles, the Orthodox are agreed about their basic character and they accuse of misguidance anyone who contradicts them…

The twelfth pillar (rukn) is knowledge concerning the Caliphate and Imāmah (and) the conditions of leadership…

Regarding the twelfth pillar relating to the Caliphate and Imāmah, they [the Orthodox] say that the Imāmah is a duty (farḍ) incumbent on the Community (Ummah), because the appointment of an Imām establishes judges and executives. He guards their frontiers, leads their armies, apportions the booty among them, and establishes justice for the wronged against the oppressor…”

So, according to Imam Baghdadi, knowledge of the Caliphate and its conditions is a fundamental pillar of the dīn.

[Cf.  Moslem Schisms and Sects by Abu Mansur ‘Abd-al-Kahir ibn Tahir al-Baghdadi (d.1037) Part II: Translated from the Arabic with introduction and notes by Abraham S. Halkin, Porcupine Press, Philadelphia, 1935, pp. 171, 210]

In part 2 of this 4-part series of posts, we will examine the creedal works of al-Laqqani and al-Shahrastani

The Political Significance of the Kalimah

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The following is related by Al-Wahidi in his Asbab al-Nuzul [The Circumstances of Revelation] regarding Surah 38 verses 5 to 12

“When ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab embraced Islam, the Muslims were overjoyed while the Quraysh was devastated. Al-Walid ibn al-Mughirah said to the nobles and chiefs of Quraysh: ‘Go to Abu Talib and say to him: you are our elder and chief and you know well what these fools have done. We have come to you so that you judge between us and your nephew’. Abu Talib sent for the Prophet and when he answered his call, he said to him: ‘Son of my brother, these are your own people and they are asking you for fairness, so do not swerve completely from them’. The Prophet asked: ‘What do they want from me?’ They said: ‘Cease mentioning our deities and we will leave you alone with your God’. The Prophet said to them: ‘Will you grant me one word [kalimah] by means of which you will rule over the Arabs and subjugate the non-Arabs?’ Abu Jahl said: ‘We will surely grant it and grant you ten like it!’ The Prophet said: ‘Say: there is no deity except Allah!*’ The Quraysh were repelled and left, saying: ‘Does he make the gods One God? How can One God be sufficient for the whole creation?’ And so Allah, exalted is He, revealed about them these verses [i.e. from 38:5], up to His words (The folk of Noah before them denied (their messenger)…) [38:12]”

*i.e. La ilaha illa Llah

Michael Hart: The Most Influential Person in History

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Above is a depiction of Sultan Muhammad al-Fatih and his army

“My choice of Muhammad [] to lead the list of the world’s most influential persons may surprise readers and may be questioned by others, but he was the only man in history who was supremely successful on both the religious and secular levels.

Of humble origins Muhammad [] founded and promulgated one of the great world religions, and became an immensely effective political leader. Today, thirteen centuries after his death, his influence is still powerful and pervasive.

The majority of persons in this book had the advantage of being born and raised in centres of civilization, highly cultured or politically pivotal nations. Muhammad [], however, was born in the year 570, in the city of Mecca, in southern Arabia, at the time a backward area of the world, far from the centres of trade, art and learning…

The Bedouin tribesman of Arabia had a reputation as fierce warriors. But their number was small; and plagued by disunity and internecine warfare, they had been no match for the larger armies of the kingdoms in the settled agricultural areas to the north. However, unified by Muhammad [] for the first time in history, and inspired by their fervent belief in the one true God, these small Arab armies now embarked upon one of the most astonishing series of conquests in human history. To the northeast of Arabia lay the Neo-Persian Empire of the Sassanids; to the northwest lay the Byzantine, or Eastern Roman Empire, centred in Constantinople [1]. Numerically the Arabs were no match for their opponents. On the field of battle, though, the inspired Arabs rapidly conquered all of Mesopotamia, Syria and Palestine. By 642, Egypt had been wrested from the Byzantine Empire, while the Persian armies had been crushed at the key battles of Qadisiyya in 637, and Nehavend in 642.

But even these enormous conquests – which were made under the leadership of Muhammad’s [] close friends and immediate successors, Abu Bakr and ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab – did not mark the end of the Arab advance. By 711, the Arab armies had swept completely across North Africa to the Atlantic Ocean. There they turned north and, crossing the Strait of Gibraltar, overwhelmed the Visigothic Kingdom in Spain.

For a while, it must have seemed that the Moslems would overwhelm all of Christian Europe. However, in 732, at the famous Battle of Tours, a Moslem army, which had advanced in to the centre of France, was at last defeated by the Franks. Nevertheless, in a scant century of fighting, these Bedouin tribesmen, inspired by the word of the Prophet [], had carved out an empire stretching from the borders of India to the Atlantic Ocean – the largest empire the world had yet seen.”

[Michael H. Hart, The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History, 1991, pp. 33-35]

[1] Constantinople was later conquered by Sultan Muhammad al-Fatih in 1453. In a hadith, the Prophet predicted:

“Verily you shall conquer Constantinople. What a wonderful leader will he be, and what a wonderful army will that army be!”

Narrated from Bishr al-Khath’ami or al-Ghanawi by:
Ahmad, al-Musnad 14:331 #18859 [sahih chain according to Hamza al-Zayn] al-Hakim, al-Mustadrak 4:421-422 [sahih according to him and al-Dhahabi concurred] al-Tabarani, al-Mu`jam al-Kabir 2:38 #1216 [sahih chain according to al-Haythami 6:218-219] al-Bukhari, al-Tarikh al-Kabir 2:81 and al-Saghir 1:306 Ibn `Abd al-Barr, al-Isti`ab 8:170 [hasan chain according to him] al-Suyuti, al-Jami` al-Saghir [sahih according to him]

Imam al-Shatibi*: The Shari‘ah is Allah’s Best Blessing and Gift to Us

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“All praise is for Allah, who rescued us from the darkness of ignorance through the illumination of knowledge, and through it He granted us the discernment to avoid falling into erroneous deception. He laid down for us in the sharīa of Muhammad a lofty standard and a manifest guide. This was the best of His abundant blessings that He showered on us and the best of His venerable gifts that He bestowed on us.

We were, before the shining forth of this light, acting haphazardly with our reason pursuing our interests in an unbalanced way. This was due to reason’s weakness in bearing the burden of these interests as well as its involvement with the pressing demands of desire arising within the self, which oscillates equally between these two ends. Thus, we kept placing poison on our ailments in place of medicine, seeking recovery in vain, like a person clutching at water. We continued to float between these two ends in a sea of doubt and greed, groping in our ignorance for a guiding evidence in a jet-black night, desiring results from sterile comparisons, seeking the symptoms of health in an ailing body, and walking prostrate in the belief that we were on the right path. All this continued till such time that pure compulsion appeared in divine decrees themselves. Coerced hands were raised towards the One and Only Subduer and the expectations of those in need were redirected towards Him. When the tongues of circumstances expressed true affirmation and the rule of compulsion was established in the objects of deeds, we recognised the Beneficent Lord and His tremendous kindness, and He showed great kindness to us out of His all embracing favour, for we could not have found a solution without His help nor would we have been guided on our own to the right way. He deemed the excuse of our inability acceptable, creating a hope of forgiveness for our mistakes prior to the sending of Messengers. Allah, the Glorious, has said, “Nor would We visit with Our Wrath until We had sent a messenger (to give warning) [Qur’an 17:15].”

 

He then sent Prophets, peace be upon them, to different nations, each speaking to them in their own tongue, whether Arab or non-Arab, so as to elaborate for them the path of truth for nations in order that they may hold themselves back from the paths to hell.

He made our group, the last yet the foremost, exclusive through the last brick of the hierarchy of the Prophets and the concluding musk perfuming the message (misk al-khitām), Muhammad ibn ‘Abd Allah. He was an overflowing blessing, a widespread mercy, a far-reaching unlettered wisdom, and a pure Hashimite flower. He sent him to us as a witness, a giver of good news, a warner inviting to God with His permission, and a brilliant lamp. He revealed to him His clear Book in Arabic, a Book that distinguished between doubt and conviction, and which is not affected by falsehood either from the front or from behind. He (the Messenger) elaborated its text in unequivocal terms and expounded its complete message adequately. He (God) enhanced it with the perfume of praise for the Prophet and described him through a unique aroma for He deemed praise for all his morals and traits an attribute of the Qur’an. This way the Prophet (pbuh) became the elaboration of the Qur’an through his words, deeds, and abstentions. The day appeared bright for those with eyes, and guidance was distinguished from guile in the light of the sun without cloud and haze.”

*Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn Musa bin Muhammad al-Lakhmi al-Shatibi (d. 790 H/1388 CE) was among the greatest scholars of al-Andalus. He studied with the renowned scholars of Granada and gained expertise in Qur’anic exegesis (tafsīr), Hadith, jurisprudence (fiqh), the principles of Islamic law (usūl al-fiqh) as well as Arabic language and grammar. He also wrote treatises on medicine and history.

[Imam al-Shatibi, Al-Muwafaqāt fī Usūl al-Sharī‘a, English translation The Reconciliation of the Fundamentals of Islamic Law, Professor Imran Ahsan Khan Nyazee, Garnet Publishing, Reading, 2011, pp. xxvii to xxviii]

Hat tip for reference: Sidi Ayaz

Charles Clarke: No Negotiation About Re-creating the Caliphate

Charles_Clarke_bungling_home_secretary

“However, there can be no negotiation about the re-creation of the Caliphate; there can be no negotiation about the imposition of Sharia law…”

British Home Secretary Charles Clarke, speaking at the Heritage Foundation on October 5, 2005 [full speech here and download pdf here].

Post Script

Contrast this with someone who speaks with knowledge about the Caliphate:

“All pious Muslims well-read in the Hadith (the compiled sayings of the Prophet*) firmly believe in the need to establish an Islamic State headed by a Muslim Caliph. This is mentioned twice in the Holy Quran and it’s central to the Islamic faith. No Muslim scholar would debate an Islamic state and the caliphate.”

[Sami Moubayed, Syrian historian and former Carnegie Scholar, writing in the Daily Telegraph, 23rd September, 2015]

*ﷺ Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him