Shāh Walī Allāh’s Definition of Khilafah

“It [the Caliphate] is the general authority to undertake the establishment of Religion through the revival of religious sciences, the establishment of the pillars of Islam, the organisation of jihād and its related functions of maintenance of armies, financing the soldiers, and allocation of their rightful portions from the spoils of war, administration of justice, enforcement of udūd, elimination of injustice, and enjoining good and forbidding evil, to be exercised on behalf of the Prophet ﷺ.”

[Shāh Walī Allāh, Izālat al-Khafā’ ‘an Khilāfat al-Khulafā’, Volume 1, p. 13, translated in The Socio-Political Thought of Shāh Walī Allāh, Professor Muhammad al-Ghazali, Adam Publishers, New Delhi, 2004, p. 86 ]

Hadith: The Knots of Islam will be Untied One by One

The Messenger of Allah ﷺ said*:

لَيُنْقَضَنَّ عُرَى الْإِسْلَامِ عُرْوَةً عُرْوَةً فَكُلَّمَا انْتَقَضَتْ عُرْوَةٌ تَشَبَّثَ النَّاسُ بِالَّتِي تَلِيهَا وَأَوَّلُهُنَّ نَقْضًا الْحُكْمُ وَآخِرُهُنَّ الصَّلَاةُ

The knots of Islam will be undone one by one, each time a knot is undone the next one will be grasped, the first to be undone will be the Rule [of Islam; The Caliphate] and the last will be the Prayer (Salah).

Narrated by Abu Umamah al-Bahili (ra)

Commentary on the hadith from The Sixty Sultaniyya:

A: It was the Prophet ﷺ who tied together the knots of Islam, including the uppermost knot of ruling after he established the Islamic state between the Ansar [Helpers], the Muhajiroon [Emigrants], and the non-Muslims in and around Yathrib (Medina) after Hijra from his own people of Mecca.

B: As mentioned by Imam Mawardi, the leadership has been prescribed as the succession of the Prophet ﷺ in protecting the deen and governing the societal affairs. In this respect, Imam Baidawi mentioned that the Imamah/Khilafah is the succession from the Prophet in the establishment of the laws of the Shari‘ah and the protection of the territory. So without the Imam the laws lie unapplied and the territory is not protected effectively.

C: The hadith indicates that it is the uppermost knot that keeps the subsequent knots safe from being untied. This is since it is the ruler that is responsible to apply Islam in its entirety, to implement the limits proscribed by Allah سبحانه وتعالى and to protect the society.

D: Imam Ahmed mentioned without an Imam (for the Muslims as their leader) there would be fitna, and the destruction of the symbols of Islam ending with the Prayer is a great fitna.



  1. al-Bukhari, Ta’rikh al-Kabir, 4:233.
  2. Imam Ahmad from Fayruz al-Daylami from his father in the Musnad, 4:232, hadith no. 18068 (hasan, Shaykh al-Arna’ut).
  3. al-Tabarani, Mujam al-Kabir, 8:98, hadith no. 7486.
  4. al-Hakim, al-Mustadrakala ’l-Sahihayn, 4:469, hadith no. 7022 where he declared the isnad (chain of transmission) as sahih
  5. Ibn Hibban in his Sahih, 15:111, hadith no. 6715 with a very strong isnad (Shaykh al-Arna’ut).
  6. Al-Mundhiri, al-Tarhib wa’l-Targhib, 1:263 with a sahih chain of transmission
  7. Al-Haythami, Majmaal-Zawa’id, 7:284 where he comments that the narrators of the hadith are all sound (rijaluhu rijalun sahih).

Hat Tip: Dar al-Nicosia

Syrian historian: All pious well-read Muslims believe in the need to establish the Caliphate

All pious Muslims well-read in the Hadith (the compiled sayings of the Prophet*) firmly believe in the need to establish an Islamic State headed by a Muslim Caliph. This is mentioned twice in the Holy Quran and it’s central to the Islamic faith. No Muslim scholar would debate an Islamic state and the caliphate.

[Sami Moubayed, Syrian historian and former Carnegie scholar writing in the Daily Telegraph, 23rd September, 2015]

*ﷺ Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him

UK Muslim Scholars: “Israel” is an illegitimate state and Jerusalem will be the capital of the future Islamic Caliphate

We the undersigned do not recognise “Israel” as a legitimate state.

“Israel” must return the entirety of Palestinian land. Palestinians have no link to the holocaust and the crimes of the Second World War against the Jewish people.

We condemn the continued fascist Zionist oppression which has cost the Palestinian people their freedom, homeland and lives for over seventy years.

Islam does not promote anti-Semitism and Arabs are also a Semitic people. On the contrary, the second Caliph of Islam, Hadrat Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) took charge of the Church of the Sepulchre and commanded Muslims to take care of it and give Christians their full rights to worship which were curtailed prior by sectarianism.

The caretakers of this Church have been a Muslim family since the arrival of Islam in the seventh century. Jews, Christians and Muslims coexisted in peace and security in Palestine, until the Zionist occupation ended the mutual tolerance that had existed for over a millennium.

Jerusalem will be the capital* of the Islamic Caliphate when it returns, Allah willing.


  1. Shaykh Asrar Rashid, Birmingham
  2. Maulana Muhammad Din Sialwi, Accrington
  3. Maulana Kamran Khan, Birmingham
  4. Imam Khalid Hussain, Leicester
  5. Hafiz Kasad Ali, Birmingham
  6. Maulana Shahid Barelwi, Burnley
  7. Maulana Haroon Raza, Birmingham
  8. Hafiz Ehsan Qadri, Sri Lanka
  9. Maulana Masud Qadri, Bolton
  10. Imam Adil Shahzad, Bradford
  11. Imam Zahoor Chishti, Oldham
  12. Maulana Naveed Ashrafi, Blackburn
  13. Imam Shahid Ali, Bradford
  14. Imam Sudagar Husain, Bradford
  15. Maulana Nizam Ashraf, Bolton
  16. Maulana Yasir Ayyub, Oldham
  17. Shaykh Danyal, Birmingham
  18. Maulana Aqeel Khan, Bolton
  19. Maulana Omar Shabier Naqshbandi, Netherlands
  20. Maulana Saad bin Sadiq, Birmingham
  21. Maulana Anis Ahmed, Birmingham
  22. Maulana Ibrar Shafi, Derby
  23. Maulana Sayyid Samdani, Bolton
  24. Maulana Haider Ali, Preston
  25. Maulana Nabeel Afzal, Coventry
  26. Shaykh Noorud-Deen Rashid, Luton
  27. Maulana Mohammed Bilal Naushahi, Bradford
  28. Imam Muhammad Husnain, Chesham
  29. Maulana Majid Abdul Rahman, Chadwell Heath
  30. Maulana Qasim Hussain, Luton
  31. Maulana Hafiz Arfat Ahmed, Luton
  32. Maulana Sajid Ali, Luton
  33. Imam Muhammad Nazim, Bedford
  34. Maulana Moqaddam Shahzada Naushani, Manchester

[Source: 5 Pillars website, 1st July 2019]

*Yunus Ibn Maysarah relates that the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ said,

هَذَا الأَمْرُ كَائِنٌ بَعْدِي بِالْمَدِينَةِ ، ثُمَّ بِالشَّامِ ، ثُمَّ بِالْجَزِيرَةِ ، ثُمَّ بِالْعِرَاقِ ، ثُمَّ بِالْمَدِينَةِ ، ثُمَّ بِبَيْتِ الْمَقْدِسِ ، فَإِذَا كَانَ بِبَيْتِ الْمَقْدِسِ فَثَمَّ عُقْرُ دَارِهَا ، وَلَنْ يُخْرِجَهَا قَوْمٌ فَتَعُودَ إِلَيْهِمْ أَبَدًا

“This matter (the Caliphate) will be after me in Madinah, then in Al-Sham, then in the peninsula, then in Iraq, then in the City (Constantinople), then in Bait ul-Maqdis (Jerusalem). If it is in Bait ul-Maqdis, its home country is there, and no people will be able to remove it, so it will return to them forever.” [Ibn Asakir, 368]


Imam Dhahabi* on Tyrants and Oppressors

The Sixteenth Major Sin
The Leader who Misleads his Following, The Tyrant and Oppressor

Allah Most High says:

“The dispute [lit. ‘way against’] is only with those who oppress people and wrongfully commit aggression in the land: these will have a painful torment” (42:42)

“Do not suppose that Allah is unmindful of what the unjust do. He only gives them respite until a Day when the eyes will stare (in terror) as they come hurrying on in fear, their heads upraised, their gaze not returning to them, and their hearts blank” (14:42-43)

“And those who do wrong will come to know by what a (great) reversal they will be overturned” (26:227)

“They did not forbid each other the evil that they did, and how wicked was what they would do” (5:79)

The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said:

“Whoever deceives is not from us” (Sahih Muslim on the authority of Abu Hurayrah (raḍyAllāhu 'anhu (may Allāh be pleased with him))

“Oppression will be darkness on the Day of Resurrection” (Bukhari, Muslim and Tirmidhi on the authority of Ibn ‘Umar (raḍyAllāhu 'anhu (may Allāh be pleased with him)))

“All of you are trustees, and each is responsible for those entrusted to his care” (Bukhari & Muslim on the authority of  Ibn ‘Umar (raḍyAllāhu 'anhu (may Allāh be pleased with him)))

“Any superior who misrules his followers shall go to hell” (Tabarani)

“If Allah makes someone responsible over a people and he does not deal with them with sincerity, Allah will prohibit him the Garden” [related with slightly different wording in Bukhari]

“On the day of Resurrection, every Judge who gives Judgements among the people will be held, an angel seizing him by the back of his head. If it is said, ‘Throw him!’ he will be thrown into Hell, and he will sink into it for forty years” (Musnad Ahmad)

“Woe to the princes, woe to the officials, woe to the guardians! On the Day of Resurrection, people will wish that their forelocks were tied to the (constellation) Pleiades, that they were swinging between Heaven and earth, and that they had never exercised any rule” (Musnad Ahmad)

“On the Day of Resurrection, a time will come for the Judge of a court when he will wish that he had not Judged between two people, even concerning (so much as) a piece of fruit”

“There is not a leader of ten people who will not be brought forth, on the Day of Resurrection, without his hands being bound to his neck, and either his justice will free him or his injustice destroy him”

In one of his supplications [du‘as], the Messenger of  Allah (ﷺ) said: “O Allah, if anyone who is in charge of anything in this Ummah (community of Muslims) is kind to them, may You be kind to him, if anyone is compassionate to them, may You be compassionate to him!” (Muslim and al-Nisa’i on the authority of ‘A’isha (raḍyAllāhu 'anha (may Allāh be pleased with her)))

Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said:

“If Allah appoints someone as a manager of Muslims’ affairs and he removes their needs, their miseries, and their poverty, Allah will remove his need, his misery, and his poverty” (Abu Daud and Tirmidhi)

“There will come corrupt, tyrannous rulers: whoever confirms their lies and assists them in their oppression is not  of me, nor I of him, and shall not meet me at my watering place in paradise” (Al-Hakim)

“On the Day of Resurrection, the most severely punished among the people will be a tyrannical ruler.”

“O people, command what is honourable (ma‘ruf) and forbid what is dishonourable (munkar), before a time comes when you will call upon Allah and He will not respond, and when you ask Allah’s forgiveness and He will not forgive you. When the Jewish rabbis and the Christian priests stopped commanding what is honourable and forbidding what is dishonourable, Allah cursed them by the tongues of their prophets and unleashed troubles among them”

“One who introduces something new into this affair of ours which is not from it, is rejected [that is to say, the sin of it is upon him]”

“He who shows no mercy will not be shown any” (Bukhari)

“Allah will shade a just ruler under His own shade on the Day when there will be no shade except His” (Bukhari and Muslim on the authority of Abu Hurayra (raḍyAllāhu 'anhu (may Allāh be pleased with him)))

“The just will be on platforms of light – those who set things aright by their judgement among their people and do not deviate from justice”

When the Prophet (ﷺ) sent Mu‘adh (raḍyAllāhu 'anhu (may Allāh be pleased with him)) to Yemen, He said: “Be careful of their most valuable possessions (when collecting Zakat), and beware of the cry of the oppressed. Truly, there is no veil between him and Allah” (Bukhari)

And He (ﷺ) said:

“There are three (kinds of) people to whom Allah will not speak on the Day of Resurrection” and he mentioned among them a king who is a liar.

“You’ll be anxious to lead, and this will be a source of remorse to you on the Day of Judgement” (Bukhari)

“By Allah, I will not appoint to a post anyone who asks for it or who is eager to get it” (Bukhari)

“O Ka‘b bin ‘Ajrah, may Allah protect you from the rule of the foolish – such rulers as will come after my time, those who are not guided by my guidance and do not follow my Sunnah”

“Whoever has sought authority among the Muslims and attained it, if his justice dominated his oppression, the Garden is for him. But if his oppression dominated his justice, the Fire is for him” (Abu Daud)

‘Umar said to Abu Dharr (رضي الله عنهما): “Tell us a tradition  which you hear from Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ).” Abu Dharr then said: “I heard Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) say: ‘On the Day of Resurrection, the ruler will be brought and left on a bridge across Hell. The bridge will shake so violently with him that nothing on it will remain on its place. If he was obedient to Allah, in his actions, he will cross over it, while if he was disobedient to Allah, in his actions, the bridge will break and he will be thrown into Hell, sinking in it for fifty years.’ ”

‘Umar then said: “Therefore, who would desire such a position, Abu Dharr?” Abu Dharr replied: “The one who would have his nose chopped off for Allah’s sake, being dragged to it by force” [that is to say, forced by the people to accept the position].

‘Amar bin Muhajir (raḍyAllāhu 'anhu (may Allāh be pleased with him)) said: “ ‘Umar bin ‘Abdul ‘Aziz (raḍyAllāhu 'anhu (may Allāh be pleased with him)) told me: ‘If you see me deviating from justice, put your hand on my collar and say, “ ‘Umar what are you doing?’ ”.

[Imam Dhahabi’s Kitab al-Kaba’ir, English translation The Major Sins by Mohammed Moinuddin  Siddiqui, Dar el Fiker, Beirut, 1993, pp. 77-80]

*Imam Dhahabi (673 H/1274 CE to 748 H/1348 CE)  is Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn ‘Uthman ibn Qaymaz, Abu ‘Abdullah Shams al-Din al-Dhahabi, the great Shafi‘i hadith master (hafiz) and historian of Islam. Of Turcoman origin, he first studied in Damascus and then travelled to Cairo and other cities in pursuit of Sacred Knowledge. He authored nearly a hundred works, some of them of considerable size. In addition to his mastery of hadith, he was also an Imam in canonical Koranic readings (qira’at) and textual criticism. [excerpted from Reliance of the Traveller by Shaykh Nuh Keller, p. 1045].

The Caliphate in Durr al-Mukhtār*

Book of Prayer, Section on Imāmah

It (the Imāmah) is either minor or major. The major (type) (i.e. the caliphate) is the right of general administration over the people. Its realization is in kalām (scholastic theology) and establishing it is the most important of obligations, hence they (the Sahabah) gave it priority over the burial [1] of the Possessor of Miracles (ﷺ).

*The Durr al-Mukhtār [‘The Chosen Pearl’] is one of the central late texts of the Hanafi school. Its author, ‘Ala’ al-Dīn al-Haskafi (Allah have mercy on him), was the Grand Mufti of Damascus during the 11th Islamic century, and his works, particularly the Durr, profoundly influenced all texts that came after it, and became the central reference for legal details and rulings (Shaykh Faraz Rabbani).

Al-Durr al-Mukhtār, the commentary on Tanwīr al-Absār, has flown through the lands, and circled the cities, and become more manifest than the sun at midday, until people have busied themselves with it, and it has become their recourse. It is most deserving of being sought, and of the school (madhhab) being on it… for it contains more well-verified rulings, and sound details than many a longer work…” [Ibn ‘Abidīn, Radd al-Muhtār, 1: 2] (ibid)

[1] Ibn Kathīr said, “What is famously related from the majority of scholars is that the Prophet (ﷺ) died on Monday and was buried on Tuesday night.” (al-Bidāyah wa al-Nihāyah (5/237) and Ṣaḥīḥ al-Sīrah al-Nabawīyyah, p.728)

Ibn Khaldun on the Defeated Mentality

“The vanquished always want to imitate the victor in his distinctive characteristics, his dress, his occupation, and all his other conditions and customs. The reason for this is that the soul always sees perfection in the person who is superior to it and to whom it is subservient. It considers him perfect, either because it is impressed by the respect it has for him, or because it erroneously assumes that its own subservience to him is not due to the nature of defeat but to the perfection of the victor.”

[Ibn Khaldun, Muqaddimah, quoted in S. Sayyid, Recalling the Caliphate: Decolonization and World Order, Hurst & Company, London, 2014, p. 1]