So it is prohibited to give any kind of authority to unbelievers over Muslim lands.
Mentioning the interpretation of scholars of this verse (4:141), Imam Qurtubi states in his tafsir:
“Allah has not given the unbelievers a way against the believers unless the believers command each other to falsehood and do not give up doing wrong and do not repent. So the overpowering in fact originates from them, as Allah says: ‘Any disaster that strikes you is through what your own hands have earned.’ (42:30) [Qadi] Ibn al-‘Arabi said, ‘This is very valuable.’ This is indicated by the words of the Prophet ﷺ in the hadith of Thawban which we find in Sahih Muslim: ‘…they will kill one another and imprison one another.’ That exists now in these times with the internecine wars between Muslims and when the power of the unbelievers has become great and they have taken control of Muslims lands* so that there is only the minimum of Islam left. We ask Allah to grant us His pardon, help and kindness.”[Abu ‘Abdullah Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Qurtubi, Tafsīr al-Qurṭubī: The General Judgments of the Qur’an and Clarification of what it contains of the Sunnah and Āyahs of Discrimination, Vol. 5, translated by Aisha Bewley, Diwan Press, 2020, pp. 304-305]
*This is also the case today in many Muslim countries. They are ruled indirectly by the unbelievers via client regimes and host the military bases of the unbelievers which are used to launch attacks against us.